Why do you need to charge EV from Renewable?
While electric vehicles (EVs) are one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions in global transportation, their benefits are contingent upon the source of their power. Today, an insufficient number of EVs are powered by renewable energy. This must change if they are to be truly environmentally friendly.
India has ambitious plans to electrify vehicles in its National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 and Phase II of the FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles) scheme. This comes at an advantageous time, as air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation in major Indian cities regularly exceed dangerous levels.
However, electrifying India's existing vehicle fleet will add terawatt-hours of new demand to the grid, necessitating careful and timely planning to minimise costs and maximise benefits, primarily for electric utilities and distribution companies. Currently, there is little discussion of this critical pillar across forums. The country's existing power distribution infrastructure enables the grid to meet the majority of this demand, more than half of which is supplied by coal-fired power plants. This could result in an increase in India's overall transportation-related emissions, defeating the country's electric-mobility mission.
Electric vehicles' ultimate promise is a cleaner environment. This cannot be accomplished if the strain on the power grid necessitates increased investment in non-renewable energy sources to deliver the energy.
Wind energy and solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity expansion have resulted in increased requirements for power balance control and power quality in several regions. Due to their economic and environmental benefits, these energies are considered to be reliable substitutes for conventional energy sources. However, one of these renewable energy sources' disadvantages is their inconsistency in providing energy. They are not continuous generators of electricity, therefore are intermittent.
Wind energy has been shown to be an appropriate choice for EV charging infrastructure through research on the control and optimization of wind turbines (WT). Charging stations based on large-scale turbines and discovered that EVs may be a critical factor in enabling wind energy to achieve a high penetration rate. Wind energy conversion using an interval-based method corresponding to the time slot used for EV charging indicated that direct wind to EV provides enough constant power for large-scale charging stations. Given the difficulties associated with traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms, shifting the charging of EVs to times of high wind availability will result in cost savings.
The research on the use of solar energy in EVs is significantly more diverse than the research on wind energy and EVs. Significantly, it is possible to generate electricity via photovoltaic (PV) technology at both medium and low voltage levels within power systems. Additionally, this alternative motivates the concept of integrating photovoltaic generation with EVs. Research indicates that solar energy can be easily stored in car batteries during the daytime when solar radiation is at its peak, emphasising the importance of maximising the cost of EVs throughout the irradiation period.
Renewable energy and electric vehicles work in tandem to create the future mode of transportation. Increased adoption of EVs results in increased carbon emissions and fossil fuel consumption reductions. However, due to the natural fluctuation of renewable energy sources, there are some challenges associated with their deployment.
Wind turbine installation is highly dependent on the location and surrounding environment. Due to the noise and the requirement for spacious premises, urban areas have been determined to be unsuitable. Solar systems generate electricity exclusively during the day, limiting their supply to meet the significant typical electricity demand.
Wind and solar energy are regarded as viable sources of electricity for EV charging infrastructure. The literature demonstrates a dearth of studies examining the charging infrastructure for renewable energy sources in terms of utilising real data to improve control strategies, sizing, and real-time control. In terms of control and management, the excellent interaction between infrastructure and long-range EVs results in an intelligent charging and discharging strategy.
Charging pricing approaches indicate that there are a limited number of utility programmes supporting renewable charging, and they are primarily targeted at residential customers. New charging programmes for heavy-duty vehicles and retail customers at public charging loads can be implemented.