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The lead-acid battery is one of the most common batteries
Samiksha Patil
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Published on 29th Jul 21

All about Lead Acid Batteries


The lead-acid battery is one of the most common batteries. These batteries use sponge lead and lead peroxide for the conversion of chemical energy into electrical power. They are well-known to possess higher cell voltage at a cheaper cost. Lead acid batteries are cost cutting and commonly used in Electric Vehicles. Electric vehicles with lead-acid batteries can range up to 130 km (80 mi) per charge.

There are 2 types of Lead Acid batteries: automobile engine starter batteries, and deep cycle batteries.

Lead-acid battery parts


The containers in a lead-acid battery are made out of glass, wood, ebonite, bituminous compound, ceramic materials, and molded plastics. The container stores and resists the chemical inside the battery.


They are the formed plates or plate plates and pasted or faure plates. Plates shape a grid, which is necessary to make an electric current and for distributing the current equally.


Active material

The material which is a part of a chemical reaction is active materials. And lead-acid batteries contain

  1. Lead peroxide (PbO2)
  2. Sponge lead
  3. Dilute Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)



Separators are built of leadwood, porous rubbers, and mats of glass fiber. They are thin shell-like structures.


Battery Terminals

Like every battery lead, an acid battery has 2terminals, the positive terminal, and the negative terminal. The positive terminal has a diameter of 17.5 mm, and the negative terminal has a diameter of 16 mm.



Nature of lead-acid battery


Battery capacity and depth of discharge

The lead-acid battery has 2types that are the deep-cycle and shallow-cycle batteries. A deep cycle battery has a 50% depth of discharge and can go up to 80%. A shallow-cycle Battery must have a larger capacity than a deep-cycle battery to have the same usability.


Lifetime of Battery

The battery capacity decreases as time passes. There is suffocation and shedding of active materials, which leads to a decrease in the battery capacity.


Battery maintenance

The crucial point in maintaining a lead-acid battery is replacing the water regularly, as the production and escape of hydrogen and oxygen cause water deduction in the batteries.


Efficiency of battery

The lead-acid battery has up to 85% of coulombic efficiencies and up to 70% of energy efficiencies.


Comparison of Lithium-ion and lead-acid battery electric vehicle

One of the most common confusion is to choose between the lithium-ion battery or lead-acid battery. And to make it a bit easy, go through the similarities and differences between them.

  • Electric vehicles are an eco-friendly approach towards societies. When it comes to the electric vehicle battery, the eco-friendly approach is not in picture as none of these batteries is 100% eco-friendly.
  • Lithium-ion batteries are more environmentally friendly than lead-acid batteries. The lead-acid batteries contain lead which is hazardous material to the environment.
  • The lead-acid battery is cost-effective as the materials are simply available, which is not the case in Lithium-ion batteries.
  • The shelf life of the lead-acid batteries is up to 3 years, whereas the lithium-ion battery has a shelf life of up to 6 years.
  • The charging time for lead-acid batteries to rise is a minimum of 6 to 8 hours. The charging time for lithium-ion batteries is 2 to 3 hours. Well, this explains a lot about these batteries and is up to your choices.



Lead-acid batteries are one of the oldest types of batteries serving various fields of industries for centuries. But the role of lead-acid batteries in the Electric Vehicle industry depends on the upcoming technologies and specifications.

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