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EV Dictionary - Terminologies in EV Ecosystem
Nimit Arora
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Kazam wants to engage everyone in electric vehicles and electric vehicle charging. A major step in this process involves making EV terminology and technology easy to understand. From batteries to charging, the below guide serves as a quick reference for current & potential EV owners:

A

AC (Alternating Current): A form of electric current that consumers typically use when they plug-in kitchen appliances, fans, televisions, etc.

Amp (Short for Ampere): Unit used to measure electric current.

B

Battery: Battery is the energy centre of the EV and is recharged by plugging the EV into a charging point.

Battery Pack: The battery system in an EV, composed of modules, high voltage hardware & protective features.

BEV (Battery Electric Vehicle): BEVs are the vehicles that utilize energy stored in rechargeable battery packs.

Battery Management System: An electronic system within the vehicle that manages & protects the battery.

C

Charging: EVs require an EV charger to keep the battery full, just like any chargeable device. This process is called charging.

Charging Point: A piece of equipment that supplies electrical power for charging EVs.

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Charging Station: A facility with one or more electrical outlets for recharging the batteries of EVs.

CHAdeMO: Abbreviation of ‘CHArge de MOve’. It is a DC fast charging standard for EVs. A global standard by 5 major Japanese automakers, now used globally. It is a rapid-charging DC connector.

CCS (Combined Charging System): It is a standard for charging EVs with AC & DC. Both AC & DC vehicle connectors can be charged via the vehicle inlet. It is a European standard connector now used globally.

CMS (Charging Management System): A system built for managing, controlling & optimizing the EV charging process.

CPO (Charge Point Operator): Installs, manages & ensures optimal operations of chargers.

D

DC (Direct Current): One-directional flow of electric charge. Fast chargers for EVs make use of DC.

DC Fast Charging: Offers accelerated charging away from home, primarily available at public charging stations. This type of charging allows for high power transfer and faster recharges.

E

EV (Electric Vehicle): A vehicle that is entirely powered by electricity.

EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment): Infrastructure designed to supply power to EVs.

F

FCEV (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle): A type of EV that uses a fuel cell instead of a battery, or in combination with a battery.

G

Green House Gases: Conventional vehicles emit greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide & methane). These are the ultimate causes of global warming.

Grid: Electricity supply mechanism. The EV ultimately draws power from the grid.

H

HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle): An HEV utilizes a dual system of electric propulsion & an internal combustion engine.

Home charging: Plugging your EV when it is parked at home (typically overnight). A dedicated home charging point is the safest way of doing this.

I

ICE (Internal Combustion Engine): An engine powered by fuel in the form of petrol or diesel.

Incentives: Governments offer benefits to encourage buyers to choose an EV.

K

Kazam: A Bangalore-based startup that provides EV charging solutions. Visit Kazam here.

kW (kilowatt): A unit of electric power.

kWh (kilowatt-hour): The basic measurement of an EV’s energy – how much power (kilowatts) it can supply over a period of time (hours).

L

Lithium-ion battery: Also known as a Li-ion, it is a common rechargeable battery.

Level 1 charging: Charging your EV using a common household outlet up to 120v. Level 1 is the slowest method of charging and can take up to 24 hours to fully charge your EV.

Level 2 charging: Charges your EV at 240v using an installed outlet. Level 2 chargers are the most recommended chargers to EV owners.

Level 3 charging: Also known as DC charging, the fastest method of charging for all EVs. It can fully charge an EV battery in about half an hour.

O

OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer): A manufacturer of vehicles, vehicle parts & related services. Usually, the term is used for EV manufacturers.

Off-peak charging: Charging your electrical vehicle at low cost off-peak hours (usually at night).

OCPP (Open Charge Point Protocol): A protocol of communication between EV charging stations & charging management systems (even when produced by different vendors). For a detailed analysis of OCPP, visit this link.

P

PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle): A hybrid electric vehicle whose battery pack can be recharged by plugging a charging cable into an external power source.

Public charging: Charging infrastructure in public spaces accessible to everyone.

R

Range: The total distance an EV can travel on one full charge before the battery needs to be recharged.

Range anxiety: Stress caused due to the fear that an electric car will run out of battery power before the destination is reached.

Regenerative braking: A method of breaking used by an EV in which energy generated from the braking of the vehicle is stored and used.

Renewable energy: Energy sources that naturally replenish, such as solar or wind power.

Roaming: Roaming for EV charging enables drivers to charge their EV with charging stations of different networks, using a single account.

S

SAE-J1772: The standard North American electrical connection for Electric Vehicles. Generally works with Level 1 and Level 2 systems.

SoC (State of Charge): The level of charge of an electric battery relative to its capacity.

Smart charging: A broad term covering a variety of functions that a wi-fi connected charge point can perform (including load balancing, energy monitoring, managed charging, etc.)

T

TESLA: An American EV company that designs & manufactures electric cars, EV charging stations, etc. It is one of the world’s most valuable automakers. It has a share of 23% of the global electric car market.

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TESLA Supercharger: A superfast charging system that can provide up to 120 kW directly to the car’s battery (exclusive for TESLA vehicles).

Top-up charging: Making use of the time your EV is not in use to add charge to your battery (usually when outside).

V

V2G (Vehicle to grid): A system that allows Electric Vehicles to communicate with the power grid to manage the flow of electricity in either direction.

W

Watt: The basic measurement of electrical power.

Z

Zero emission: Zero emission refers to an engine, motor or process that emits no greenhouse gas.

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