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As per the name, the powertrain provides power to the vehicle. Powertrain refers to the set of components that generate the power required to move the vehicle and deliver it to the wheels of your vehicle. Electric cars function by plugging into a charge point and taking electricity from the grid. They store the electricity in rechargeable batteries that power an electric motor, which turns the wheels. Electric cars accelerate faster than vehicles with traditional fuel engines so the vehicles feel lighter to drive.
There are three main components of the powertrain. They are engine, transmission, and driveshaft. The power of the car is generated by the engine and it is transmitted to the driveshaft. There are also other components that are included in the powertrain. They are engine, differentials, axles, emissions, control, exhaust, engine cooling system, etc. There is a difference between the components of ICE vehicles and components of electric vehicles. That is 60% less than ICE vehicles.
The other components are,
Powerpack: The battery pack consists of multiple lithium-ion cells and also stores the energy which is required to run the car. Direct current is provided by the battery pack.
DC-AC Converter: Battery supplies the direct current & it is converted into the AC which supplies the electric motor. This power is managed by a motor control mechanism that controls the frequency and magnitude of voltage supplied to the electric motor. Electric cars can use AC or DC motor rs If the motor is a DC motor, then it may run on anything from 96 to 192 volts. If it is an AC motor, then it probably is a three-phase AC motor running at 240 volts AC with a 300-volt battery pack.
Electric motor: Electric motor converts the electrical energy to mechanical energy & it gets converted to the wheels.
On-Board charger: Converts Ac received through charge port to DC and controls the amount of current flowing into the battery pack.
Battery management system: It is an electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery which is the cell or battery pack such as by protecting the battery from operating outside its safe operating area, monitoring its state, calculating secondary data, reporting that data, controlling its environment as well as to authenticate it. It is the most important tool in electric cars.
DC-DC Converter: The DC-DC converter is used to boost the Fuel Cell voltage and to regulate the DC-link voltage. However, a reversible DC/DC converter is needed to interface the SCs module.
Thermal management system: This is responsible for maintaining the optimum operating temperature range for the powertrain components.
Body control module: It supervises and controls the functions of electronic accessories such as power windows, mirrors, security.
There are three types of the powertrain.
These powertrain components plays important role in the functioning of electric cars.